Building: Perot Museum of Nature and Science
Location: Victory Park – Dallas, Texas
Architect: Morphosis (Thom Mayne)
Architect of Record (Dallas): Good, Fulton and Farrell
Structural Engineer: John Martin & Associates and Datum Engineers.
Preliminary Design Engineer: Buro Happold
Status Dec 2010: Under Construction
(above) Images from site visit, July 2011 – photo credit: Taylor Borchert
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
Location: Abandoibarra Etorbidea, 2
48011 Bilbao, España (Spain)
Built: 1993-October 19, 1997
Architect: Frank Owen Gehry
Structural Engineer: Skidmore Owings & Merrill LLP
Subcontractor: CIFER S.A.
Lighting: BEGA Gantenbrink-Leuchten KG
Total size: 24,000 square meters
Materials: Titanium, Spanish Limestone, and glass
The museum’s titanium scale-like skin and curvaceous form work together to capture the light and reflect it off with fluidity also mimicking the flowing water in the nearby Nervión river.
“Gehry has noted that each random shape and buckle of the exterior is to catch the light, so on any given day, on any given time, you could have a myriad of sparkles, created by sun on man-made materials, that might never be replicated again.” (1)
“Approximately a third of a millimeter thick, the titanium panels are applied using a traditional locked seam. The material’s thinness, together with it application method, results in a pillow like effect.” (2) It is inspired by the texture and shape of a fish. The inside spaces are not like traditional museum exhibits; they include curvy walls and are an exhibit of their own without overpowering the art on display.
Gehry has always designed starting by hand through sketches and for the Guggenheim in Bilbao he has moved to a more advanced technology called CATIA (Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application).
(4) This is the model that was exhibited at the grand opening of the Guggenheim.
Both CATIA and BOCAD (a steel detailing program) were used in the creation of the building. CATIA significantly upgraded the level of complex forms that could be realized by Frank Gehry. This allowed for more freedom in his designs and “simplified construction by providing digital data that could be employed in the manufacturing process, thus controlling costs” (2)
CATIA Modeling Steps:
STEP 1.DIGITIZING THE PHYSICAL MODEL
STEP 2.SURFACE MODEL
STEP 3.SHADED SURFACE
STEP 4.PRIMARY STRUCTURE
STEP 5.SECONDARY STRUCTURE
STEP 5.1.CURVATURE ANALYSIS
STEP 6.SHOP DRAWING
STEP 7.THE FINISHED BUILDING
(www.dac.dk and Gehry Partners LLP)
It took Gehry’s firm about “50,000 drawings and 60,000 hours of computing time to produce elements of the building façade. The splines were connected to the frame with a uni-strut adjustable joint. The joint allowed for the tuning of the splines to precisely support the titanium skin.” (3)
(4) The final elevation of the building.
1. Michael Hutagalung (http://www.frillseekerdiary.com)
2. “Frank Gehry, architect”. Colomina, Beatriz, Friedman, Mildred, Mitchell, William, Ragheb, Fiona and Cohen, Jean-Louis. Harry N. Abrams, 2001.
3. “Digital Gehry Material Resistance Digital Construction”. Lindsey, Bruce. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser, 2001.
4. “Guggenheim Museum Bilbao”. Bruggen, Van. New York, New York: Guggenheim Museum Publications, 1998.
Case Study by: Pilar Guerrero
ARE320K, Fall 2010
Institut Du Monde Arabe
1 Rue de Fosses Saint-Bernard
75005 Paris, France
Architect: Jean Nouvel
Architectural Team: Jean Nouvel, Gilbert Lezenes, Pierre Soria
Project Manager: JJ Raynaud, Antoinette Robain, Adeline Rispail
Interior Design: Francois Seigneur
Museum Lighting: Licht Design
Museum Structure: Arcora
The Arab World Institute is a multi-function cultural center, including a museum, temporary exhibition spaces, a library, a documentation center, an auditorium, a restaurant, and children’s workshops.
The Arab World Institute was designed in response to a competition for a commission from nineteen Arab states to create an Arabic culture center in Paris. The commission was the beginning of French President Fancois Mitterrand’s new policy on major works (1). The building was designed to display in grand effect the Arabic culture while simultaneously blending in to the Parisian landscape. This called for a synthesis of history and modernity of both cultures (1). The major player in this hybridization is the south facade.
The south facade is a modern interpretation of the traditional Arab screen, the moucharabieh. This lattice was designed to allow air and light in while keeping women hidden from public (2). Below are traditional Moucharabieh designs.
In order to capture the themes of geometry and light manipulated by the patterns of the moucharabieh, camera shutters were used to create a miasma of circles and poylgons. The shutters are all linked to a central computer which controls how much light is allowed into the structure by manipulating the shutters, all 25000 of them (2). The pictures below show the attention to detail of the shutters and the control of light they posses.
In order to fully integrate the shutters into the modern-arabic design, the mechanisms were inserted between two layers of glass. This paralleled the sophistication of screens set at intervals of wood and marble of traditional Arabic design. It took two years to develop a working prototype (2).
The north facade of the building does not have to work with variable lighting conditions as the south face does, and thus has a simpler, cleaner profile. To mirror the modernity of the Parisian landscape and highlight the use of light in the building, a silk-screen was attached to the north facade depicting an “abstract skyline” (2). The reflectivity of the surface mirrors the pride and beauty of the surrounding buildings.
The focus of this building, as made apparent from the previous information, was the manipulation and molding of light. The building invokes a sense of transparency with many levels of glass faces for depth, framed and filtered by the structure itself. The staircases and cylindrical book tower are excellent examples of the use of light and structure (1). The structure’s complexity of steel members and frames adds to the Arabic weave of the environment.
Another continuation of the Arabic motif is the spatial play of size and space in form. The halls and rooms expand and constrict in manners similar to the mosques of the east. Also, a hypostyle room reflects the influence of the ancient mosques in a modern fashion. In the middle of the building there is an open courtyard which takes its roots from the central fountains of the middle east. The plan below displays this synthesis of forms.
Below the use of structural components (concrete pillars) can be seen in harmony with the design of the space. The structure is part of the design.
The Arab World Institute used state of the art design and construction in order to capture the spaces and light as Jean Nouvel required. Consultants on concrete structures and glazed facades were brought in to analyze the plans. Intricate construction involving aluminum trim on structural components and custom bolts and frames added to the complexity, and ultimately beauty, of the building. The effect of the finished product was to create a translucent surface that “stretched like skin” across the structure (1). The goal was to create a work that maximized space as well as form.
Case study by: Garrett Jones
ARE 320K, Fall 2010
Other sources (UT Library):
(1) Boissière, Olivier, and Jean Nouvel. Jean Nouvel. Basel: Birkhäuser, 1996. Print.
(2) Bosoni, Giampiero. Jean Nouvel. Geneve: Skira, 1999.
Building: de Young Museum
Location: 50 Hagiwara Tea Garden Drive, San Francisco, CA 94118
Completion: October 2005
Client: de Young Museum
Primary Designers: Herzog & de Meuron
Principal Architects: Fong & Chan Architects
Landscape Architects: Hood Design
Herzog & de Meuron Team:
Project Architect: Ascan Mergenthaler
Project Manager: Jayne Barlow
Fong & Chan Team:
Project Manager: Nuno Lopes
General Contractor: Swinerton Builders
Project Manager: Mike Strong
Structural Engineers: Rutherford & Chekene
MEP: Ove Arup Group and Partners
The original de Young Museum was founded in 1906 by Michael de Young with the goal of putting San Francisco on the financial map . This museum stood for nearly one hundred year before an earthquake in 1989 and numerous additions eventually made the building unsightly and uninhabitable.
Herzog and de Meuron were commissioned to build a replacement museum, but were a controversial pick because many people thought they were too young, dramatic, or unknown . Although doubted, Herzog and de Meuron created a building that was appreciated for its architectural value, but did not overwhelm the site.
Jacques Herzog understood that the building needed to fit into the landscape, but the design team also wanted a building that was always changing . The copper skin of the de Young is intentionally manipulated with some smooth surfaces and others that are bumpy or perforated to “oxidize with poetic unevenness” .
Part of preserving the natural site included keeping pieces from the original building . Historical elements preserved in the new building site include palm trees and the Pool of Enchantment.
The most recognizable part of the building is the tower on the front side . The shape is unique in design as it “rises from a rectangular footprint to a non orthogonal parallelogram.” Thus, the shape of the tower allows the building to further sink into the surrounding landscape as from some angles the tower almost disappears.
On the interior, the building consists of several courtyards that allow visitors to see outside and enjoy the natural surroundings as well as the art . Additionally, Herzog and de Meuron did not want the building to have one main entrance, therefore they gave the museum four entrances .
As with any museum, light played an important factor with the desing of individual spaces . Herzog and de Meuron also sought to show no favoritism to specific art rooms. They strived to make each room just as appealing for art as the next, while making each room accessible from the main walkways.
Ultimately, Herzog and de Meuron accomplished their goal of creating an art museum that could display sufficient amounts of art without being overbearing on the site.
Herzog and de Meuron, de Young Museum. <http://www.arcspace.com/architects/herzog_meuron/de_young.html>
Nicholson, Louise. “Herzog & De Meuron’s new, copper-clad de Young Museum in San Francisco ingeniously bonds with its setting.” Apollo Dec. 2005: 17+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 Sept. 2010.
For San Francisco’s de Young Museum, Herzog & de Meuron create a new building with a sensual copperskin that will evolve over time. Architectural record [0003-858X] Amelar yr:2005 vol:193 iss:11 pg:104 -115
Ketcham, Diana. The de Young in the 21st century: a museum by Herzog & de Meuron. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2005.
Architect: Steven Holl Architects
Structural Engineer: Guy Nordenson and Associates, China Academy of Building Research
Mechanical Engineer: Transsolar,Beijing Capital Engineering Architecture Design Co. LTD, Cosentini Associates
Linked Hybrid is a multifunctional urban complex consisting of eight towers connected by skybridges in a semi-lattice-like form. The complex is described as an “open city within a city” which includes spaces for residential, commercial, educational and recreational use. The design promotes the use of shared resources while also diminishing the need for unnecessary transit.
The eight towers have concrete exoskeletons that diminish the need for interior columns and allow the residential apartments to vary in size and design. The apartments also contain adjustable panels for reconfiguration.
The skybridges connect to the towers by four roller mounts called isolators which allow for their own independent movement during earthquakes. The bridges all differ in slope and are designed to maximize transparency and allow for optimal light.
Five multistory, steel cantilevers at 33 feet long rest on top of the towers and are supported by a reinforced concrete diagrid in the exoskeleton. Polychrome lights inspired by ancient Chinese temples line the undersides of the cantilevers, skybridges, and the window jambs.
655 Geo-thermal wells each at 100 meters below the base of the structure provide an estimated 70 percent of all cooling and heating needs for the building. The placement of these mechanical systems underground reduces noise pollution, lowers CO2 emissions and opens up roof space for green landscapes.
Linked Hybrid utilizes water recycling techniques that pipe used water from apartments and the greywater pond into ultraviolet filtered tanks and redistributes the water back to the apartments and also waters the surrounding landscapes. 220,000 liters of water are recycled daily and the building is credited with a 41 percent decrease in potable water usage.
Case Study by: Brandon Long
ARE 320K, Fall 2010
Sources (UT Library):
“Steven Holl Architects: Linkwd Hybrid, Beijing 2003-08.” Lotus International Mar. 2010: 64-71.
Pearson, Clifford A. “Connected Living: Steven Holl’s Linked Hybrid in Beijing Provides a Vision of Mixed-use Development That Engages the City around It and Operates Sustainably.” Architectural Record Jan. 2010: 48-55.
“Linked Hybrid, Beijing, China.” GA Document Dec. 2009: 40-55
Cy Twombly Pavilion, the Menil Collection
1519 Branard St
Architects: Renzo Piano Building Workshop
Structural Engineer: Ove Arup & Partners, Haynes Whaley Associates Inc.
The Cy Twombly Pavilion is an adjunct to the Menil Collection and houses a permanent collection of paintings, sculptures, and drawings by Cy Twombly.
The outside of the building is composed of concrete panels which contrast the effect of the floating roof.
Here is a plan of the ground floor and building sections showing the roof support system.
The most challenging aspect of the building is the roof which must diffuse harsh sunlight to bring in the right amount of light. The roof structure is composed of 4 layers:
-adjustable, motorized louvers
(web article on the “floating roof”)
The last layer, the cloth ceiling conceals the roof details from the inside and also makes it possible to add additional, artificial light through holes in the cloth.
(Read more about the Cy Twombly Gallery)
Case Study by: Kaylyn Fenner
ARE 320K, Fall 2010
Other sources (UT Library):
“Art House.” Architectural Record. May 1995 v.183: 80-83.
“Softly Piano.” Texas Architect. Jul.-Aug. 1995 v.45: 62.
Structure: Millennium Bridge
Location: Bankside to the City of London, England
Completed: February 2002
Architect: Foster and Partners
Artist: Sir Anthony Caro
Contractors: Monberg Thorsen and Sir Robert McAlpine
The design for the Millennium Bridge began in 1996. The height restrictions due to the bridge’s location required a unique design for a shallow suspension foot bridge spanning three hundred and thirty-three feet. The cable sag is a mere 2.3 meters.
The unusual profile for the cables created concern about the structure’s stiffness and response to torsion. Extensive analysis was conducted to make sure the tension in the cables would stabilize the bridge enough to meet lateral stiffness standards. The cables were placed wide from the bridge to resist torsional forces.
Despite the extensive analysis, on opening day the bridge experienced strong lateral vibrations. While no vertical vibrations were experienced, the lateral vibrations were strong enough to make many pedestrians grab onto the rails. Two days later, the bridge was closed for investigation.
Many tests were conducted and a theory of synchronous lateral excitation was proposed. This phenomenon results when a large number of people cross the bridge, all contributing a minuscule lateral force that is typically neglected in design analysis. The sensation of lateral vibration becomes noticeable because the pedestrians often find it more comfortable to step in synchronization with the bridges slight lateral movements, therefore creating a large force in time with the bridge’s natural frequency, eventually exaggerating the lateral movement. The investigation included studying bridges that also demonstrate this phenomenon, proving that the sensation is not unique to the Millennium Bridge’s unusual shallow cable design.
Thirty-seven viscous dampers were installed to control the horizontal motion, and twenty-nine pairs of tuned mass dampers to control vertical motion.
While synchronous lateral excitation had previously been witnessed, the extensive research into it was a break through in bridge design and stands as the Millennium Bridge’s main contribution to the engineering world.
Pat Dallard, Tony Fitzpatrick, Anthony Flint, Angus Low, Roger Ridsdill Smith, Michael Willford and Mark Roche, “London Millennium Bridge: Pedestrian-Induced Lateral Vibration”, J. of Bridge Engineering, Trans. ASCE, 6, 412-417 (2001).
P. Dallard et al. “The London Millennium Footbridge”, The Structural Engineer, 79, No. 22, 17-33 (2001).